3D printed patient specific implants derived from CAD/CAM-based technologies are presented as an alternative to preformed bone graft substitutes. Yet, today, clinicians must still choose between patient specificity or implant properties that are favorable for bone remodeling, leading to off-the-shelf solutions such as the β-tricalcium phosphate granules and preformed blocks that are used today.
Ideal patient specific Implants not only exhibit exact fitting, porosity, density, and volume but are also insoluble, osteoconductive, osteoinductive, have resorption properties that resemble native bone, and allow ingrowth and formation of new bone tissue. These are properties which, in combination, are not found in commercially available patient specific implants (Thygesen et al, 2022).
The resorbable properties of P3D Bone has previously been investigated in several studies (Jensen 2020, Jensen 2018, Slots 2017). In this pilot study, the 3D printed P3D Bone has been directly compared to a commercially available preformed β-tricalcium phosphate implant in relation to defects in the mandible ramus of pigs. The aim of the study was to analyze the performance of the implants that fulfill the aforementioned requirements in a clinically relevant implantation model where the implant, defect and bone are similar in size to what would be expected in human patients.
The results of the study showed that the preformed off-the-shelf implant and the 3D printed P3D Bone performed equally well with predicted osteointegration medially and laterally and minimal gaping between the implants and native bone.