Even though the development of more complex models for mimicking human organs is rapidly progressing, organoids do lack some complexity. Firstly, organoids generally lack the vasculature of organs [3, 7]. Secondly, some types of organoids cannot recapitulate the structure of the modeled organ, and lastly, some stem cell-derived organoids are relatively immature . The organoids are therefore not a complete image of the organ, but rather a snapshot of the specific condition, or a means to analyze cellular mechanisms without using animals .
Nonetheless, the capacity of organoids to emulate human organs and their responses to therapies with improved cell structure and function can translate more accurate findings to human physiology and pathology.
In research, organoids can be used to perform more complex examinations of human tissue physiology, organ-specific infectious diseases, genetic diseases, and cancer than those provided by 2D cell cultures. As a result, organoids may give better insight into the cell communication between cell types, and thereby, increase the efficiency of in vitro testing [3, 7].
Implications for drug development
Moreover, in the last decade, organoids have been applied in drug testing during the preclinical phase to estimate how the drug will influence cellular events in the respective organ . With enhanced cell viability, response to stimuli, and drug metabolism, the organoid represents a promising screening platform for drug development that could prove a key driver in the transition toward faster, more effective, and more ethical drug development processes.