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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

General questions​

Why choose 3D cell cultures over 2D cultures?

3D cell culture systems are better and more predictive research models of human physiology and pathology than traditional 2D cultures because 2D culturing leads to polarized cells growing in a monolayer. The P3D Scaffolds allow cells to grow and self-organize naturally and maintain the cell-to-cell interaction and the cell-to-matrix interaction. Thereby, the three-dimensional scaffolds give more insight into the cell communication between cell types and offer an opportunity to better understand complex biology in a physiologically relevant context.

Furthermore, one disruptive driver of switching to 3D models from conventional methods is the possible reduction in the reliance on animal models to obtain more relevant data. Reducing the use of in vivo animal models, owing to the relevant and predictive data from 3D cell models, may consequently reduce the costs and time needed to develop new human therapeutics.

Read more in our blog post: How 3D culturing is revolutionizing the fields of disease modeling and regenerative medicine

Why should I use a scaffold-based 3D cell culture system?

The scaffolds provide physical structures that support the growth and self-organization of cells into 3D models and allow them to expand to significant numbers. Especially, the porous structure of the P3D Scaffolds maximizes cell growth sites.

The surface you choose for creating your 3D cell model is essential for obtaining reproducible results. The P3D Scaffolds allow you to use the same customized structure across tests and trials, whether for in vitro or in vivo purposes. Furthermore, the P3D Scaffolds provide an accurate replica of the calcified bone composition and stiffness of the tissue.

Are the scaffolds supplied sterile?

Yes, the P3D Scaffolds are supplied sterile by dry heat sterilization and remain sterile until opened.

What scaffold design should I choose?

Our different infill types fulfill your different research needs. Do you need to monitor cell morphology close while the cells are still in culture? - then go for our grid structure, which allows light to pass through the scaffold easily, thereby enabling you to perform regular checkups on your cells. Our data shows that cells will grow from the corners and inwards as depicted to the right.

Is your research more focused on gaining a model system as natural as possible? Then our gyroid structure is just the right choice for you. Here you will get a randomized organization of the pores resulting in a variable pore size, making regular checkups while in culture a bit trickier, but leaving you with an in vivo cell morphology and cell behavior in an in vitro system.

Scaffold usage

Which assays and analytical methods are compatible with the scaffolds?

​Many methods may be used for analyzing the biological activity on the 3D printed structures.
Ossiform has successfully used the following methods

  • Inverted light microscopy (through the pores)
  • Fluorescence microscopy such as for human or bacterial cells that are labelled with green fluorescent protein (GFP)
  • Nucleic acid extraction for PCR and next generation sequencing (NGS)
  • Staining assays such as an ALP staining assay. The dye may be detached from the 3D structures after staining for quantification using absorbance
  • Enzymatic assays such as the p-nitrophenyl phosphate based assay for alkaline phosphatase activity
  • Micro-computed tomography (microCT) imaging

  • Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM)

  • Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX/EDS)

  • X-ray fluorescence (XRF)

  • Raman spectroscopy

  • Cell recovery by trypsination (for single cell analyses/methods like FACS and single cell​sequencing)​

What cells can be grown on the P3D Scaffolds

Many different cells may be grown and studied on the 3D printed structures that are designed to mimic natural bone. These include, but are not limited to

  • Stem cells including human mesenchymal stem cells, and osteoblasts. These may be used for studying bone development.
  • Cancer cells including oral carcinoma and lung cancer cells. These may be used to study cancer invasion and metastasis in bones, a frequent site of cancer metastasis, and test treatments of bone tumors using therapeutics.
  • Human mesenchymal stem cells and cancer cell lines can be co-cultured on the scaffolds. Thereby, you can form a realistic scenario, with cancer cells mixed in with normal cells, which subsequently can be subjected to chemotherapeutic treatment to measure and compare the effects of the chemotherapeutic responses.

What microorganisms can be grown on the P3D Scaffolds

P3D Scaffolds can be used to grow and study a variety of microorganisms. Ossiform has successfully grown the following microorganisms on the P3D Scaffolds:

  • Pathogenic bacteria including staphylococcus aureus. These may be used to study osteomyelitis, surgical site infections and implant biofilms, and prevention and treatment of these conditions using pharmaceutics.
  • Environmental microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. These may be used to study the interaction between environmental microorganisms and inorganic 3D structures that mimic environmental structures like soil, rocks, sediment, and building materials.

Which diseases may be studied on the P3D Scaffolds

The P3D Scaffolds enable the creation of good disease models, such as bone tumors, and are useful for studying diseases like bone metastasis, osteomyelitis, and osteoporosis. For example:

  • ​Bone destruction in osteoporosis/arthritis can be imitated by seeding osteoclasts and macrophages onto the P3D Scaffolds.
  • The development of bone tumors and spreading of cancerous cells through the outer calcified bone matrix can be studied by seeding cancerous cells to the P3D Scaffolds.
  • Osteomyelitis and the subsequent destruction of bone can be mimicked by adding bacteria and immune cells to the P3D Scaffolds. This enables you to study the mechanisms behind the bacteria's destruction of the hardened calcified bone as well as how the bacteria are able to evade the immune system and antimicrobial pharmaceuticals.

Can the scaffolds be used for both in vitro and in vivo research?

Yes, you can use the P3D Scaffolds both in your laboratory research and animal trials to ensure consistency across research methods.

Since P3D Scaffolds do not contain any materials foreign to the body, the bone models are well suited for in vivo animal trials as well as in vitro tests. This secures that the conclusions derived from in vitro experiments accurately account for the events that occur in vivo.

Disclaimer: The products are “For Research Use Only (RUO)” and should not be used for clinical purposes. Ossiform makes no other warranties, expressed or implied, including the implied warranty of merchantability and the implied warranty of fitness for particular purpose.

Physical and Chemical Properties

How can I customize the scaffolds to my study?

You can choose between:

  • Three different designs (grid, gyroid, or honeycomb)
  • Three different standard sizes: 12, 20 or 30 mm
  • If you want your scaffolds with or without a solid base of the scaffold

Further design modifications are available upon request for a specially designed P3D Scaffold tailored to your in vitro or in vivo study.

What are the P3D Scaffolds made from?

P3D Scaffolds are polymer free and consist solely of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). The scaffolds are 3D printed from Ossiform’s novel nonpolymeric bioink which consists of β-TCP and fatty acid. By default, the fatty acid is removed through sintering.

P3D Scaffolds are available in regular β-TCP or ultra clean (medical grade) β-TCP.

How to order

How do I order the P3D Scaffolds?

Ways to place your order:

  • Order online – via the formulars on our website
  • Call +45 53 60 06 70 to place your order
  • Email your purchase order to sales@ossiform.com

The P3D Scaffolds are customized and 3D printed based on your research needs. Therefore, we ask you to tell us about your requirements for the scaffolds, and we will help find the best solution for you.

Please feel free to contact us for a non-committal discussion or quote, and we will be in touch with you.

What is the price?

P3D Scaffolds are provided at a unit price dependent on scaffold size (12, 20, or 30 mm), or at a fixed price for a 6-, 12-, or 24-well plate, respectively. Three full-plate options are available:

  • 24x 12 mm P3D Scaffold
  • 12x 20 mm P3D Scaffold
  • 6x x 30 mm P3D Scaffold

Get a free quote here.

Our mission is your benefits

Our mission is to provide 3D printed natural bone implants to reduce complications, improve functional & aesthetic outcomes, and obtain faster recovery.

Natural bone porosity, optimized for bone regeneration 

The unique structure of the P3D Bone is designed to facilitate the natural forming of new bone.

Remodels into real living bone

The natural material and structure ensure effective remodeling of the implant into new vascularized bone.

Patient specific - designed with the patient's uniqueness in mind

The P3D Bone is 3D printed to enable a full restoration of the functionality and appearance of bones.

Resorbable material with structural support

P3D Bone eliminates the need to harvest bone as well as the need for permanent and ill-fitting implants.

P3D Bone Void Filler is expected to launch in 2023

Our first 3D printed, resorbable P3D Bone with modifiable dimensions and a lifelike bone architecture

P3D Bone Patient Specific Implant is expected to launch in 2024

Our patient specific and resorbable P3D Bone based on the patient’s own CT/MRI scan data

We Print Bone​™

Contact us here

Contact us for questions, general inquiries, or to request a quote.
We strive to provide you with highest quality service and expertise in medical 3D printing.

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Do you have questions?

Give us a call or write to us by email: info@ossiform.com

We will get back to you as soon as possible.​


Ossiform ApS - We Print Bone™

​Oslogade 1, 5000 Odense C​, Denmark

CVR. 38838512

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